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Understand Meaning Of Terms Used In Dentistry

The majority of dental anxiety comes from the perception of the “unknown”. This guide breaks down the professional terminology into everyday language, so that our dental patients can understand oral diseases, conditions and treatment in a better way.

Layer of tooth

Enamel

Enamel is the thin outer most covering of the tooth. This tough shell is the hardest tissue in the human body. Enamel covers the crown which is the part of the tooth that is visible outside of the gums. Because enamel is translucent, you can see light through it.

Dentin

Dentin is a hard, light yellowish, porous layer of tissue directly underneath enamel and cementum. Dentin constitutes the largest portion of the tooth and consists of approximately 70% inorganic matter and 30% organic matter and water.

Tooth dentin
Dental pulp

Pulp

Pulp is the center of a tooth, made up of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts. Tooth pulp is the most vital part of the tooth. Also commonly referred to as the nerve, the pulp branches out and continues down each root through the canals of the tooth and stops just shy of the apex or tip of the tooth.

Cementum

Cementum is a specialized calcified substance covering the root of a tooth. The cementum is the part of the periodontium that attaches the teeth to the alveolar bone by anchoring the periodontal ligament.

Tooth cementum
Tooth cusp

Cusp

The pointed portion of the tooth is called cusp. A cusp is an occlusal or incisal eminence on a tooth. Canine teeth, otherwise known as cuspids, each possess a single cusp, while premolars, otherwise known as bicuspids, possess two each. Molars normally possess either four or five cusps.

Abfractions

Abfraction is a form of non-carious tooth tissue loss that occurs along the gingival margin. In other words, abfraction is a mechanical loss of tooth structure that is not caused by tooth decay, located along the gum line.

Teeth Abfractions
Tooth abrasion

Abrasion

Tooth Abrasion is the wear caused by forces other than chewing such as holding objects between the teeth or improper brushing.

Erosion

Dental erosion is the loss of the surface of your teeth due to acids you eat or drink or acids coming up from your stomach. These acids can dissolve the crystals that make up your teeth, leading to tooth surface loss.

Dental erosion
Tooth fracture

Tooth Fracture

A tooth fracture is a break or crack in the hard shell of the tooth. The outer shell of the tooth is called the enamel. It protects the softer inner pulp of the tooth that contains nerves and blood vessels. Depending on the type of fracture, the tooth may not cause any problems or it may cause pain.

Graft

Graft is a piece of tissue or alloplastic material placed in contact with tissue to repair a defect or supplement a deficiency in gum or bone tissue.

Alloplastic graft
Implant placed in premolar tooth

Dental Implant

A dental implant is a surgical component that interfaces with the bone of the jaw or skull to support a dental prosthesis such as a crown, bridge, denture, facial prosthesis or to act as an orthodontic anchor. With proper care and maintenance, a dental implant can last for more than 25 years. Dental implants are actually designed to be a permanent tooth replacement option.

Mouthguard

Mouthguard is a device that fits over the teeth to mainly prevent injury to the teeth, mouth or lips. This may also refer to a device that prevents tooth grinding or treats temporomandibular joint disorders (i.e, night guard). Mouthguards, also called mouth protectors, help cushion a blow to the face, minimizing the risk of broken teeth and injuries to your lips, tongue, face or jaw. They typically cover the upper teeth and are a great way to protect the soft tissues of your tongue, lips and cheek lining. Mouthguard is very useful to those involved in sporting activity and also bruxism patient who are indulged in non-functional grinding of teeth.

What is mouth guard?
What is tobacco de-addiction

Tobacco De-addiction

There are effective treatments that support tobacco cessation, including both behavioral therapies and FDA-approved medications. FDA-approved pharmacotherapies include various forms of nicotine replacement therapy as well as bupropion and varenicline. Research indicates that tobacco users who receive a combination of behavioral treatment and cessation medications quit at higher rates than those who receive minimal intervention.  Interventions such as brief advice from a health care worker, telephone helplines, automated text messaging, and printed self-help materials can also facilitate smoking cessation.

Supra Eruption

Supra-eruption or over eruption of tooth/teeth is defined as movement of a tooth or teeth above the normal occlusal plane. Supra eruption occurs when opposing teeth in occlusion is lost and space is left un-restored.

What is supra eruption of tooth?
What is dental prophylaxis?

Dental Prophylaxis

Dental prophylaxis is the medical term for procedures that promote oral health. This can include anything from a dental check-up to getting sealants or simple teeth cleaning to protect the teeth from cavities and promote oral health.

Premedication

The use of medications prior to dental procedures, such as antibiotics for various medical conditions.

Premedication
What is local anesthesia?

Local Anesthesia

Local anesthesia is any technique to induce the absence of sensation in a specific part of the body, generally for the aim of inducing local analgesia, that is, local insensitivity to pain, although other local senses may be affected as well.

Non-Intravenous Conscious Sedation

Conscious sedation in dentistry is accomplished using oral drugs such as Valium, Halcion, Ativan, Sonata, and Versed. Each offers differing degrees of sedation, and nearly all are used to treat other medical concerns such as insomnia and general anxiety. These classes of drugs work by placing a person in a sort of “depression of consciousness” in which commands by the dental team can be acted upon, but no memory of the event or any discomfort experienced during it are recalled.

What is conscious sedation?
What is dental x-ray used for?

Dental X-rays

Dental radiographs are commonly called X-rays. Dentists use radiographs for many reasons – to find hidden dental structures, malignant or benign masses, bone loss, and cavities.

Bitewing Radiographs

The bitewing radiograph (BW) is an image that depicts the maxillary and mandibular crowns of the teeth, providing a clear image of the interproximal surfaces of the teeth and allowing for detection of interproximal caries.

What is a bitewing radiograph?
Radiovisiography -RVG

Radiovisiography (RVG)

Radiovisiography (RVG) is the latest digital imaging technique in dentistry with the minimal radiation exposure of the patient and numerous possibilities to process the images has many advantages over classic radiography. Digital imaging is a radiographic technique that utilizes a wired or wireless hard sensor or phosphor plate sensors known as a receptor, instead of film. Digital images consist of pixels organized in a matrix of rows and columns.

Full-Mouth X-Rays (OPG)

An OPG (Orthopantomogram) is a panoramic scanning dental X-ray of the upper and lower jaw. An OPG also demonstrates the number, position and growth of all the teeth including those that have not yet surfaced or erupted through the gum. It is different from the small close up x-rays dentists take of individual teeth.

OPG x-ray of mouth
Cosmetic dentistry

Cosmetic Dentistry

Cosmetic dentistry is generally used to refer to any dental work that improves the appearance of teeth, gums and or bite. It primarily focuses on improvement in dental aesthetics in color, position, shape, size, alignment and overall smile appearance.

Bleaching (Teeth Whitening)

Teeth whitening is a simple process. Whitening products contain one of two tooth bleaches (hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide). These bleaches break stains into smaller pieces, which makes the color less concentrated and your teeth brighter.

Teeth whitening
Smile design

Smile Design

Smile Design is a protocol of managing the shapes, contours and color of the teeth as they appear in a smile and are proportioned in an individual’s face. This protocol and management needs to balance with the elements of function and health that are specific for each individual in order to achieve a successful result. It is a dental procedure which artistically creates straighter, whiter and beautiful natural looking smiles. Smile designs can do wonders to fully restore your dental health and appearance regardless of the original state of your existing teeth.

Full Mouth Rehabilitation

Full mouth rehabilitation is a highly individualized treatment. The point of a full mouth reconstruction plan is to optimize the health of the entire mouth, including the teeth, the gums, and the bite. In many cases, it is necessary to replace or restore every tooth in the mouth using a combination of dental services.

Full mouth rehabilitation
Dental veneers

Dental Veneers

Dental veneers (sometimes called porcelain veneers or dental porcelain laminates) are wafer-thin, custom-made shells of tooth colored materials designed to cover the front surface of teeth to improve appearance of teeth. These shells are bonded to the front of the teeth changing their color, shape, size or length. Dental Veneers are used for aesthetic improvement of teeth.

Composite Veneers

Composite veneers are a conservative alternative to porcelain and are made from translucent resin that is carefully sculpted and hardened by your dentist in a single appointment.  Composite is more versatile than porcelain, lasts 5-7 years and is much less expensive.

Composite veneers
Restorative dentistry in Jamnagar

Restorative Dentistry

Restorative dentistry is the term dental professionals use to explain how they replace missing or damaged teeth. Fillings, crowns (“caps”), bridges and implants are common restorative options. The goal of restorative dentistry is to bring back your natural smile and function and prevent future oral health issues.

Decay

Tooth decay is a permanently damaged areas in the hard surface of your teeth that develop into tiny openings or holes. Decay, also called tooth cavity or caries, are caused by a combination of factors, including bacteria in your mouth, frequent snacking, sipping sugary drinks and not cleaning your teeth well.

Decayed tooth
Cavity in a tooth

Cavity

Tooth cavities is a permanently damaged areas in the hard surface of your teeth that develop into tiny openings or holes. Cavities, also called tooth decay or caries are caused by a combination of factors, including bacteria in your mouth, frequent snacking, sipping sugary drinks and not cleaning your teeth well.

Direct Restoration

Direct dental restoration are the one in which, work is fabricated and completed within the mouth. The procedure, commonly referred to as filling, involves the placement of a malleable substance into a prepared and cleaned cavity. Most common direct restoration includes composite or amalgam restoration.

composite and amalgam fillings in teeth

Tooth Filling

Tooth filling is a lay term used for the restoring of lost tooth structure by using materials such as metal, alloy, plastic or porcelain. A dental restoration or dental filling is a treatment to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure resulting from caries or external trauma.

Amalgam Restoration

Dental amalgam is an alloy composed mainly of mercury, silver, copper and tin. Very resistant, it is used to restore a broken, cracked or fractured tooth, or one affected by tooth decay. Dental amalgam is very old, so it is part of the first generation of filling materials in dentistry.

Silver filling
composite and amalgam fillings in teeth

Composite Restoration

A composite filling is a tooth colored plastic and glass mixture used to restore decayed teeth. Composites are also used for cosmetic improvements of the smile by changing the color of the teeth or reshaping disfigured teeth.

Bonding

Bonding commonly refers to a composite resin applied to a tooth to change its shape and/or color. Bonding also refers to how a filling, orthodontic appliance or some fixed partial dentures are attached to teeth.

Bonding in tooth
Endodontics in dentistry

Endodontics

Endodontics is the dental specialty concerned with the study and treatment of the dental pulp. An Endodontist is a root canal specialist. A dental specialist who limits his/her practice to treating disease and injuries of the pulp and associated periradicular conditions, i.e. root canals. Endodontics is the dental specialty concerned with the study and treatment of the dental pulp.

Root Canal

The portion of the pulp cavity inside the root of a tooth; the chamber within the root of the tooth that contains the pulp.  Portion of the tooth treated by endodontic therapy.

Root canals
Root canal treatment (RCT)

Root Canal Treatment

A root canal is a treatment used to repair and save a tooth that is badly decayed or becomes infected. During a root canal procedure, the nerve and pulp are removed and the inside of the tooth is cleaned and sealed. Without treatment, the tissue surrounding the tooth will become infected and abscesses may form.

Re-Root Canal Treatment

Re-Root canal retreatment may be necessary if a previously root canal treatedtooth fails to heal or if a recurrent infection is evident. Root canal treatment has a very high rate of success but as with other medical or dental procedures, infection or inflammation may persist or recur despite our best efforts.

Root canal re-treatment
Tooth core build-up

Core Build Up

Core build up materials are used when there is not enough healthy tooth left for proper crown placement. Building up the core of the tooth with resin or plastic composites allows for better retention of the crown and reduced sensitivity while strengthening the tooth itself.

Post & Core

A post and core restoration is a type of dental restoration required when there is an inadequate amount of sound tooth structure remaining to retain a crown. A post is cemented into a prepared root canal, which retains a core restoration, which retains the final crown.

Post and core restoration in a tooth
Peri-apical abscess

Peri-apical Abscess

Peri-apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intra-orally but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications such space infections.

Apicoectomy

Apicoectomy, also known as root end surgery, retrograde root canal treatment or root-end filling is an endodontic surgical procedure whereby a tooth’s root tip is removed and a root end cavity is prepared and filled with a biocompatible material. It is an example of a periradicular surgery.

Apicoectomy procedure
Periodontology

Periodontology

Periodontology or periodontics is the specialty of dentistry that is involved in study of supporting structures of teeth, as well as diseases and conditions that affect them. The supporting tissues are known as the periodontium, which includes the gingiva, alveolar bone, cementum, and the periodontal ligament. A Periodontologist is a dentist who specializes in diseases of gums and surrounding structures of a tooth.

Gingiva

The gingiva is the anatomical term for gums used in dentistry. These are found in the oral cavity or mouth of a human being surrounding part of the teeth. They consist of mucosal tissue that covers the alveolar processes of the maxilla and mandible and finish at the neck of each tooth.

Gingiva
Gingivitis

Gingivitis

Gingivitis means inflammation of the gums, or gingiva. It commonly occurs because a film of plaque or bacteria accumulating on the teeth. Gingivitis is a non-destructive type of periodontal disease but untreated gingivitis can progress to more severe disease called periodontitis.

Dental Plaque

Dental plaque is a soft, sticky film that builds up on your teeth and contains millions of bacteria. The bacteria in plaque cause tooth decay and gum disease if they are not removed regularly through brushing and flossing. This is called gingivitis, an early stage of gum disease.

Dental plaque
Calculus deposition

Calculus

Calculus or tartar is a form of hardened dental plaque. It is caused by precipitation of minerals from saliva and gingival crevicular fluid in plaque on the teeth.

Scaling

Scaling is a common dental procedure for patients with gum disease. This is a type of dental cleaning that reaches below the gum line to remove plaque buildup. Scaling removes plaque and calculus from the tooth surface.

Teeth cleaning
Teeth scaling and root planing

Root Planing

Root planing involves smoothing rough spots on the roots of the teeth that can promote gum disease by trapping and holding bacteria. The whole procedure may be done in a single visit, although generally a quadrant or half of the mouth is recommended per appointment. Root planning smoothens the tooth root and helps the gum reattach to the tooth.

Gingival Recession

Gingival recession is also known as receding gums. Gingival recession is the exposure in the roots of the teeth caused by a loss of gum tissue and/or retraction of the gingival margin from the crown of the teeth.

Gingival recession
Gingival depigmentation

Gingival Depigmentation

Gingival depigmentation is a periodontal plastic surgical procedure whereby the hyperpigmentation is removed or reduced by various techniques. The patient demand for improved esthetics is the first and foremost indication for depigmentation. It is a procedure used to lighten or remove black spots or patches on the gums consisting of melanin. Gingival depigmentation is also known as gum bleaching.

Gingival Enlargement

Gingival enlargement is an increase in the size of the gingiva (gums). It is a common feature of gingival disease. Gingival enlargement can be caused by a number of factors, including inflammatory conditions and the side effects of certain medications like Phenytoin.

Gingival enlargement
Crown lengthning

Crown Lengthening

Crown lengthening is a surgical procedure designed to increase the extent of tooth structure to treat aesthetic disproportions such as a gummy smile.

Periodontal Flap Surgery

Periodontal flap surgery is a procedure in which the gums are separated from the teeth and folded back temporarily to allow a dentist to reach the root of the tooth and the bone.

Periodontal flap surgery
Gum lift surgery

Gum Lift Surgery

Gum lift surgery is the removal of gingival tissue with a diode laser.  An important adjunct to cosmetic dentistry used to even the smile line, lengthen short teeth and reduce a gummy smile.

Laser Gum Treatment

Laser Gum Treatment is an advanced technique for your doctor to treat periodontal (gum) disease and save many teeth that were previously considered hopeless. A laser light is used to gently remove harmful bacteria and diseased tissue from the gum pocket. The Laser Gum Treatment is painless and requires less time for healing of tissue.

Laser gum treatment
Periodontal abscess

Periodontal Abscess

A periodontal abscess is a pocket of pus in the tissues of the gum. It looks like a small red ball pushing out of the swollen gum. If the pus cannot drain, it forms an abscess. An abscess can cause a fever and a throbbing pain in nearby teeth. It can also cause long-term damage to your teeth and gums.

Gingivectomy

Gingivectomy is a dental procedure in which a dentist cuts away part of the gums in the mouth. It is the oldest surgical approach in periodontal therapy and is usually done for improvement of aesthetics or prognosis of teeth.

Gingivectomy
Gingivoplasty

Gingivoplasty

Gingivoplasty is the surgical reshaping of gum tissue around the teeth. It is often done simply to make gums look better. They may have an unusual shape or may not be formed normally.

Pericoronitis

Pericoronitis is inflammation of the soft tissues surrounding the crown of a partially erupted tooth, including the gingiva and the dental follicle. If left untreated, the infection can spread, irritate the gingiva, and lead to severe infection that can reach the jaw, cheeks, and neck. The infection can be chronic or acute. Alternatively, acute pericoronitis has intensified wide-ranged symptoms which can include swelling, pain, and fever.

Pericoronitis in 3rd molar
Periodontal disease

Periodontal Disease

Periodontal (mainly gum) disease is an infection of the tissues that hold your teeth in place. It’s typically caused by poor brushing and flossing habits that allow plaque (a sticky film of bacteria) to build up on the teeth and harden to form calculus resulting in an abnormally deep gingival sulcus, possibly producing periodontal pockets and loss of supporting alveolar bone.

Periodontal Pocket

Gingival and periodontal pockets are dental terms indicating the presence of an abnormal depth of the gingival sulcus near the point at which the gingival tissue contacts the tooth. It is Pathological deepening of gingival sulcus.

Periodontal pocket
Periodontitis

Periodontitis

Periodontitis is a severe gum infection that can lead to tooth loss and other serious health complications. Periodontitis also called gum disease, is a serious gum infection that damages the soft tissue and without treatment it can destroy the bone that supports your teeth. It is inflammation and loss of the connective tissue of the supporting or surrounding structure of teeth with loss of attachment.

Pyorrhoea

Pyorrhoea is an advanced stage of periodontal disease, it causes bleeding and discharge of pus from gums. It is one of the most widely prevalent diseases. This disease is a primary cause for tooth loss among adults. It is usually the result of poor oral hygiene. Pyorrhoea is serious gum infection that damages the ligaments, gums and supporting bone. There is a pus discharge from the roots of the teeth and gums. The pus is often swallowed along with food which lead to various infections.

Periodontal abscess
Teeth splinting

Splint

Periodontal splint is a device used to support, protect, or immobilize oral structures that have been loosened, replanted, fractured or traumatized. Also refers to devices used in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders.

Orofacial Conditions

Orofacial pain is a general term covering any pain which is felt in the mouth, jaws and the face. Orofacial pain is a common symptom and there are many causes. After dental pain, the second most common cause of orofacial pain is temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome (TMD, pain-dysfunction syndrome).

Orofacial Pain
broken teeth due to bruxism

Bruxism

Bruxism is a condition in which you grind, gnash or clench your teeth. If you have bruxism, you may unconsciously clench your teeth when you’re awake (awake bruxism) or clench or grind them during sleep (sleep bruxism). It is basically non-functional grinding of teeth.

Xerostomia

Xerostomia is also known as dry mouth. Xerostomia is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva or reduced salivary flow or have no identifiable cause. This symptom is very common and is often seen as a side effect of many types of medication.

Xerostomia
Teeth clenching

Teeth Clenching

Clenching is clamping and pressing of the jaws and teeth together in centric occlusion. Teeth grinding and jaw clenching (also called bruxism) is often related to stress, anxiety, physical effort, or a bad bite.

It does not always cause symptoms but some people get facial pain and headaches and it can wear down your teeth over time. Most people who grind their teeth and clench their jaw are not aware they’re doing it. It often happens during sleep or while concentrating or under stress.

Neuromuscular Dentistry

Neuromuscular Dentistry involves rehabilitation and occlusion which believes the bite position should be where the masticatory muscles are in optimal function. Neuromuscular Dentistry employs technology such as TENS, computerized scans and EMG’s to analyze a patient’s bite and muscle health.

Neuromuscular dentistry
Obstructive sleep apnoea

Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

Obstructive Sleep Apnoea is a disorder in which breathing stops for short periods of time during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of nocturnal breathing cessation due to upper airway collapse. OSA causes severe symptoms, such as excessive daytime somnolence and is associated with a significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. OSA can be treated by a variety of oral appliances.

Temporomandibular (TMJ)

The temporomandibular joints (TMJ) are the two joints connecting the lower jaw bone to the skull. It is a bilateral synovial joint between the temporal bone of the skull above and the mandible below.

Temporomendibular Joint
Temporomendibular joint disfunction

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

Abnormal functioning of temporomandibular joint; also refers to symptoms arising in other areas secondary to the dysfunction, especially muscle symptoms. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD, TMJD) is an umbrella term covering pain and dysfunction of the muscles of mastication (the muscles that move the jaw) and the temporomandibular joints.

Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome (MPDS)

Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome or MPDS is a pain disorder in which unilateral pain is referred from the trigger points in myofascial structures, to the muscles of the head and neck.  MPDS is the most common cause of masticatory pain & limited function for which patient seeks dental consultation & the source of the pain treatment.

Myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome MPDS
Prosthodontics

Prosthodontics

Prosthodontics is the branch of dentistry concerned with the design, manufacture, and fitting of artificial replacements for teeth and other parts of the mouth. And a Prosthodontist is a dentist who specializes in the aesthetic (cosmetic) restoration and replacement of teeth. Receives three of additional training after he has completed Bachelor of Dental Surgery. Prosthodontist restores optimal appearance and function to your smile.

Dental Prosthesis

A dental prosthesis is an artificial device that replaces one or more missing teeth. An intraoral prosthesis is used to restore intraoral defects such as missing teeth, missing parts of teeth and missing soft or hard structures of the jaw and palate. Prosthodontics is the dental specialty that focuses on dental prostheses.

Dental prosthesis
Dental bridge abutment

Abutment

This is used in the context of a fixed bridge (“abutment teeth” referring to the teeth supporting the bridge), partial removable dentures (“abutment teeth” referring to the teeth supporting the partial) and in implants (used to attach a crown, bridge, or removable denture to the dental implant fixture).

Crown Abutment

Abutment is the connecting structure that holds the crown securely to the implanted post. The metal post is typically made of titanium, and crowns can be made from several materials, including metal, zirconia, porcelain and ceramic. They may also be made from a combination of materials.

Implant crown abutment
Dental crown or cap

Crown

A crown or dental cap is a type of dental restoration which completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental implant. A crown may be needed when a large cavity threatens the health of a tooth. They are typically bonded to the tooth by dental cement.

Fixed Partial Prosthesis

A fixed partial denture is a prosthetic replacement of one or more missing teeth cemented or attached to the abutment teeth or implant abutments adjacent to the space. A Fixed Partial Denture (FPD) is a restoration that is luted or otherwise securely retained to natural teeth, tooth roots and or dental implant abutments that furnish the primary support for the prosthesis.

fixed dental prosthesis
Dental bridge for replacement of tooth

Dental Bridge

 A dental bridge is a false tooth (called a pontic) that is held in place by the abutment teeth on either side of the gap. Although pontics can be made from a variety of materials such as gold, typically they are made from porcelain to aesthetically blend in with your natural teeth. Dental bridges can last five to 15 years and even longer. With good oral hygiene and regular checkups, it is not unusual for the life span of a fixed bridge to be over 10 years.

Zirconia Crown

Zirconia Crowns are the first choice for front teeth as they are translucent like natural teeth and aesthetically far more superior then ceramic crowns. Zirconia is made from zirconium, a metal with similar properties to titanium. Zirconium makes a good choice for dental material because it is chemically unreactive. Zirconia has many properties that make it a good choice for dental crown material. Zirconia is even stronger than porcelain. In fact, when compared to their porcelain counterparts, zirconia crowns offer 200 percent higher bending strength and flexibility. Optimal comfort: Zirconia crowns do not transmit temperature fluctuations in the same way as traditional restorations.

Zirconia crowns
Ceramic crowns

Ceramic Crown

Ceramic Crowns are popular for restoring teeth due to their ability to blend with your natural tooth color. The crown is made of a porcelain based material. Porcelain is fused to metal and they are also known as porcelain jacket crowns. This crown provides a stronger bond than regular porcelain because it is connected to a metal structure. Ceramic crowns are the most widely used crown as they are cost effective and mimic natural tooth. Ceramic crowns are second choice for restoration front teeth after Zirconia crown as they have slightly poor aesthetic in comparison.

Metal Crown

Metals used in crowns include gold, palladium, nickel or chromium. Metal crowns rarely chip or break, last the longest in terms of wear down, and only require a small amount of tooth to be removed. Metal crowns are the most widely used crowns in non-aesthetic zone as they are very cost effective alternative to other types of crown.

Stainless Steel Crown
Dental inlay

Inlay

Dental inlays are a form of indirect restoration. This means they are made outside of the mouth as a single, solid piece that fits the specific size and shape of the prepared tooth cavity after removal of decay. An inlay will incorporate the pits and fissures of a tooth, mainly encompassing the chewing surface between the cusps.

Onlay

Onlay is an indirect restoration made outside the oral cavity that overlays a cusp or cusps of the tooth, which is then luted to the tooth. Onlays are also referred as short crowns and may be made of metal, porcelain, or composite.

Dental onlay
Flexible partial denture

Flexible Partial Denture

Flexible dentures are a kind of partial denture, but these ones are made of different materials than ordinary partial dentures. Most flexible dentures are made of a thin thermoplastic such as nylon, compared to the thicker, more rigid acrylic used in full dentures.

Removable Partial Denture

Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are widely used to replace missing teeth in order to restore both function and aesthetics for the partially edentulous patient. Conventional RPD design is frequently bilateral and consists of a major connector that bridges both sides of the arch.

Removable partial dentures
Cast partial dentures

Cast Partial Dentures

A Cast Partial Denture (CPD) is defined as a removable partial denture consisting of a cast metal framework that contains artificial teeth set in an acrylic resin. As compared to conventional acrylic denture, Cast Partial Denture is stronger, more durable and retentive.

Precision Attachment

Interlocking device, one component of which is fixed to an abutment or abutments and the other is integrated into a fixed or removable prosthesis in order to stabilize and/or retain it.

Dental precision attachment
Denture

Complete Dentures

A denture is a removable replacement for missing teeth and surrounding tissues. Denture enables you to speak and eat more comfortably. They prevent facial muscles from sagging and impart an overall younger look to you.

Overdenture

Overdenture is any removable dental prosthesis that overlies and rests on one or more remaining natural teeth, the roots of natural teeth or dental implants. Overdentures are more preferable to the traditional denture due to increased retention and long term stability of denture supporting bone.

Overdentures
Hybrid denture

Hybrid Dentures

Hybrid dentures are also called fixed-detachable dentures are a way to replace missing teeth and gum tissue with a prosthetic attached to dental implants. Hybrid dentures are recommended when you have a lot of bone loss in your jaw. This type of denture is more natural looking and stable.

Immediate Denture

An immediate denture is a denture that is made prior to the extraction of the natural teeth, which is inserted into the mouth immediately after the extraction of the teeth. It is seen as a provisional prosthesis and once healing of extraction socket is completed and proper base for denture is formed, a new permanent denture will be made.

Immediate dentures
Maryland Bridge

Maryland Bridge

Maryland bridge is a type of fixed partial denture not requiring crowns. The prosthesis is bonded to the natural teeth to secure it. Maryland bonded bridges (also called a resin-bonded bridge) are made of porcelain, porcelain fused to metal, or plastic teeth and gums supported by a metal or porcelain framework. Metal or porcelain wings often on just one side of the bridge are bonded to back of your existing teeth.

Dental Specialist

A dentist who has received postgraduate training in one of the recognized dental specialties. Specialties are recognized in dentistry are orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; pediatric dentistry; periodontics; prosthodontics; oral and maxillofacial surgery; oral and maxillofacial pathology; endodontics; public health dentistry; and oral and maxillofacial surgeon.

Dental specialist
Pediatric dentist

Pedodontics

Pedodontics is the speciality of dentistry that deals with children’s teeth and oral diseases. A pedodontist, commonly called a pediatric dentist, is a dentist who specializes in children’s dental care. A pedodontist typically sees children from ages six months to 12 years old and will use child friendly techniques to help the child establish good oral health from an early age.

Pit and Fissure Sealants

Pit and Fissure Sealants are a dental treatment intended to prevent tooth decay. Teeth have recesses on their biting surfaces; the back teeth have fissures (grooves) and some front teeth have cingulum pits these sealants fill up the pits and fissures on tooth surface and prevent accumulation of food debris, which helps prevent tooth decay.

Pit and fissure sealents
Fluoride application on teeth

Fluoride Application

Dentists provide professional fluoride treatments in the form of a highly concentrated rinse, foam, gel, or varnish. The treatment may be applied with a swab, brush, tray, or mouthwash. These treatments have much more fluoride than what’s in your water or toothpaste. They only take a few minutes to apply. You may be asked to avoid eating or drinking for 30 minutes after the treatment so the fluoride can fully absorb. It is a preventive procedure.

Space Maintainers

A space maintainer is an appliance that is custom-made by a dentist or pedodontist in acrylic or metal material. It can be either removable or cemented in a child’s mouth. Its purpose is to keep the space open to allow the permanent tooth to erupt and come into place. It is a preventive procedure.

Teeth space maintainers
Tooth pulpotomy

Pulpotomy

Pulpotomy is a minimally invasive procedure performed in children on a primary tooth with extensive caries but without evidence of root pathology. Pulpotomy is the term for removal of the coronal pulp with the intent of maintaining the vitality of the remaining radicular pulp tissue.

Pulpectomy

Pulpectomy is a root canal procedure for pulp tissue that is irreversibly infected or necrotic as a result of caries or traumatic injury. Pulpectomy involves removing the whole pulp tissue from the crown down to root of the tooth to treat infection and avoid tooth loss.  When the pulp becomes infected or injured, it can cause a great deal of pain and trauma to the patient.

Tooth pulpectomy
Direct pulp caping

Direct Pulp Capping

Pulp capping is a technique used in dental restorations to prevent the dental pulp from necrosis, after being exposed, or nearly exposed during a cavity preparation. Direct pulp capping is a procedure in which the exposed vital pulp is covered with a protective dressing or base placed directly over the site of exposure in an attempt to preserve pulpal vitality.

In-direct Pulp Capping

Pulp capping is a technique used in dental restorations to prevent the dental pulp from necrosis, after being exposed, or nearly exposed during a cavity preparation. In indirect pulp capping, a thin layer of softened dentin, that if removed would expose the pulp, is left in place and the protective dressing is placed on top.

In-direct pulp caping
Habit breaking appliance in children

Habit Breaking Appliance

It is normal for the children to have to unhealthy oral habits. Some of such habits include thumb sucking, nail biting, lip biting, tongue thrusting, mouth breathing etc. Habit breaking appliance help break this unhealthy oral habits. These appliances can either be of removable or fixed type.

Orthodontist

Orthodontics is a specialty of dentistry that deals with the diagnosis, prevention and correction of malpositioned teeth and jaws. It also focuses on modifying facial growth, known as dentofacial orthopedics. An orthodontist is a dentist who specializes in alignment of teeth and growth modification of Jaw.

Orthodontics
Normal occlusion of teeth

Occlusion

Occlusion, in a dental context, means simply the contact between teeth. More technically, it is the relationship between the maxillary (upper jaw) and mandibular (lower jaw) teeth when they approach each other, as occurs during chewing or at rest.

Malocclusion

Improper alignment of biting or chewing surfaces of upper and lower teeth. A malocclusion is a misalignment or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches when they approach each other as the jaws close. This refers to the manner in which opposing teeth meet (mal- + occlusion = “incorrect occlusion”).

Malocclusion of teeth
Midline Diastema

Midline Diastema

Midline diastema is a space between the maxillary and/or mandibular central incisors. Midline diastema can be due to various causes such as genetic, environmental, and so on. The presence of diastema between the central incisors in the adult patient has esthetics and malocclusion concerns.

Orthodontic Treatment with Braces

Conventional braces work using individual brackets and archwires to move your teeth into position. Each bracket is fitted to the surface of your tooth and the archwire is slotted into these brackets.

Orthodontic teeth braces
Clear aligners

Clear Aligners

Clear Aligners also known as Invisible Aligners, are orthodontic devices that are a transparent, plastic form of dental braces used to adjust teeth. Aligners are a series of tight-fitting custom-made mouthpieces that slip over the teeth. Clear Aligners are very comfortable compared to conventional orthodontic treatment with braces. They are almost invisible and hence nobody will notice that you have an orthodontic treatment going on for aligning your teeth. Clear Aligners are most effective when it is worn for more than twenty-three hours every day.

Invisalign®

The Invisalign® orthodontic treatment is composed of two clear, plastic trays that fit over your teeth. Invisalign® has become a popular option for teens and adults who need minor tooth straightening and alignment because it is nearly invisible. They are also more comfortable and less painful than traditional braces. People often wonder “How long does Invisalign® take to straighten teeth?” A course of treatment with Invisalign® takes 12 months for most adults, although actual time will vary from person to person. Many people start seeing a difference in their teeth within two to three months of starting to use the aligners. Invisalign® does hurt. In general, it is less painful than traditional metal braces, and like any type of orthodontic treatment, the pain fades after the teeth adjust to wearing the aligners and to having new aligners swapped in and out. This doesn’t mean, of course, that your Invisalign® will be completely pain free.

Treatment with Invisalign®
Oral and Maxilofascial surgery

Oral and Maxilofacial Surgery

Oral and maxillofacial surgery specializes in surgery of the face, mouth, and jaws. It is an internationally recognized surgical specialty. Oral Surgery is a separate recognized speciality confined to surgery within the mouth. An Oral and Maxilofacial Surgeon is a dentist who specializes in surgeries of face, mouth and jaw including surgical removal of wisdom tooth or any other tooth.

Tooth Extraction

A dental extraction is the removal of teeth from the dental alveolus (socket) in the alveolar bone. Extractions are performed for a wide variety of reasons, but most commonly to remove teeth which have become unrestorable through tooth decay, periodontal disease, or dental trauma, especially when they are associated with toothache.

Tooth removal
Alveoloplasty

Alveoloplasty

Alveoloplasty is a dental pre-prosthetic procedure performed to facilitate removal of teeth, and smoothen or reshape the jawbone after extractions to allow dentures to sit well.

Jaw Fracture

A Jaw bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone. In more severe cases, the bone may be broken into several pieces.

Jaw fracture
Facial fractures

Facial Fractures

Facial fractures are fractures (broken bones) of the face and mouth. They commonly include fractures of the nose (nasal), cheekbones (zygoma), surrounding of the eyes (orbit) and upper (maxilla) and lower (mandible) jaws.

Surgical Extraction of Impacted Teeth

Surgical extraction of impacted teeth is required when the tooth is not erupted in the oral cavity and is covered by soft tissue and/or bone. Extraction requires the cutting of tissue and bone. The most commonly affected teeth are third molars and maxillary canines, but impaction can occur with any teeth.

Impacted wisdom tooth
Cyst and Tumor of Oral Cavity

Cyst and Tumor Removal

The cyst is removed through a small incision inside the mouth and the space that is left behind is cleaned out. If it is very large or has caused damage, the surgeon may also remove some teeth, roots and a section of jawbone.